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JSPES, Vol. 47, No. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 2022)
pp. 309-323

Understanding the Determinants of the Gender Gap

Ade Al-Nimri
Taleb A. Warrad
University of Jordan

The gender gap has been central to discussing development policies in recent decades. It is considered one of the primary guidelines for policymakers worldwide. Because of this, this study aims to combine and highlight the primary determinants of the gender gap in four regions, America, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East, to include 21 countries, over the period 1990-2020. The model used is backed by economic theory and previous empirical studies to examine the gender gap as represented by a wage gap, labor gap, and education gap, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the following determinants: trade openness, economic growth, human development index, population, remittances, and foreign direct investment. The study's empirical findings indicated that governments could address the gender wage gap by policies of transparency regarding male and female income, by provision of business mentoring for women, especially in relation to jobs classified as male-dominated, and by encouraging skills-based employment assessments without regard to employee gender, especially in developing countries.